Perhaps there's as much reason to hope as I'd wanted to believe there was....
Stéphane Hessel, 93.
Much the very last step. The end is not far away. What chance to take this opportunity to recall what has served as base my political engagement: years of resistance and the program developed there are sixty-six years by the National Council of Resistance! C ' Jean Moulin is that we, through this Council, the meeting of all components of occupied France, the movements, parties, trade unions, to proclaim their adherence to the Fighting France and only leader it is recognized: the General Gaulle. London where j ' had joined General de Gaulle in March 1941 I learned that this Council had developed a program, ' had adopted March 15, 1944, proposed for a set of liberated France principles and values underlying modern democracy our country 1 . These principles and values, we have TODAY ' Today more than ever need. It behooves us all together to ensure that our society is a society in which we are proud of: not of this company undocumented, expulsions, suspicions against immigrants, not this society where challenges pensions, acquired Security social, not this society where the media are in the hands of the wealthy, all things that we would have refused to endorse if we were the true heirs of the National Council of Resistance. From 1945, after a terrible tragedy, it is an ambitious resurrection which engage the forces present in the Council of Resistance. Remember, then what is created Social Security Resistance as he wished, as the program stated: " A comprehensive plan for Social Security, to ensure that all citizens
livelihoods, in all cases where they are incapable of the available through work "," a retreat to the old workers end their days with dignity. "The sources ' energy, electricity and gas, coal, the major banks were nationalized. C ' this is what program called again, "the return to the nation of the major means of monopolized production, produced by common sources of energy, wealth of the subsoil, insurance companies and large banks; " the establishment of genuine economic democracy and social involving the eviction of large feudal economic and financial the direction of the economy. " The public interest must prevail over the ' interest Specifically, the fair sharing of the wealth created by the world of work override the power of ' money. Resistance offers " rational organization of the economy to ensure the subordination special interests to the public interest and free from the dictatorship introduced to the professional image of fascist states, and Provisional Government of the Republic it is over. A real democracy needs a free press, and the Resistance knows required by defending "The press freedom, honor and independence with respect to the state, the power of money and foreign influences. That is what turns further orders on the press in 1944. Yet that is what is now in danger. Resistance in calling for "an effective opportunity for all children French to benefit from the instruction the most developed, "without discrimination, yet the reforms proposed in 2008 to go ' against this project. Young teachers, I support the ' action, were up ' to refuse to apply them and they saw their wages amputees as a punishment. They were outraged, have "disobeyed" found these reforms too far from the ideal of the republican school, too service company
money and not enough developing the creative and critical thinking. C ' is the base of the social conquests of the Resistance is TODAY ' hui questioned 2 . The pattern of resistance is the outrage. We dare say that ' State can no longer cover the costs of these civic action. But how can he miss today's money to maintain and extend these achievements while production of wealth has increased considerably since the Liberation period l ' Europe was ruined? Otherwise, because the power of ' money, so fought with the Resistance, n ' has never been greater, insolent, selfish, with his own servants into the highest echelons of the ' State. Banks are now privatized first show of their conscious dividends and high salaries of their leaders, no interest General. L ' gap between the poorest and richest has never been important, and the race for money, competition, much encouraged. The basic pattern of resistance was indignation. We veterans of resistance movements and fighting forces of Free France, we call the younger generations to live, transmit, inheritance Resistance and its ideals. We say take over, indignant you! The political, economic, intellectual and all Company shall not resign or be intimidated by the current international dictatorship of financial markets that threatens the peace and democracy. I wish you all, to each of you to have your design indignation. Is invaluable. When something as unworthy you j ' I was outraged by the Nazis, then one becomes an activist, strong and committed. We joined the stream of history and the mainstream of the ' history must be continue through each. And this trend is towards more justice, more freedom but not this freedom of uncontrolled fox in the henhouse. These rights, including the Universal Declaration drafted the program in 1948,
are universal. If you meet someone ' No one who ' will not receive, pity him, help him to conquer them. Two visions of the ' History When I try to understand what caused fascism, which caused we have been invaded by him and by Vichy, I tell myself that the wealthy, with their selfishness, have been terribly afraid of the Bolshevik revolution. They have been guided by their fears. But if TODAY ' Today as Then, a vocal minority stands, this will suffice, we will leaven so that the dough rises. Admittedly, ' experience ' a very old like me, born in 1917, differs from the experience of young people today. I often asks college teachers the opportunity to intervene to their students, and I tell them: you don ' not have the same reasons obvious committing. For us, resist, c ' was not to accept l ' German occupation, the defeat. It was relatively simple. Simple as what followed, decolonization. Then the war Algeria. It was that Algeria became independent, it was obvious. As for Stalin, we all applauded the victory of the Red Army against the Nazis in 1943. But even if we had knowledge of the great Stalinist trials of 1935, and even whether to keep an ear open counterbalance to communism for American capitalism, the need to oppose this intolerable form of totalitarianism s ' was an obvious move. My long life has given me a succession reasons to be indignant. These reasons are born less than an emotion will d ' commitment. The young that I Normale ' was there was very marked Sartre, a senior classmate. Nausea, The Wall, not L ' Being and None were very important in shaping my thinking. Sartre taught us to say: "You are responsible as Indira- viduals. "He was a libertarian message. The responsibility for ' man can s ' in hand or power or a god. Instead, we must
engage on behalf of its responsibility as a human. When I went to the École normale rue d'Ulm, Paris, in 1939, I entered it as a fervent disciple of the philosopher Hegel, and I followed the Seminar Maurice Merleau-Ponty. His teaching explored concrete experience, that of the body and its relationship with the meaning, singular plural great deal of sense. But my natural optimism, which means that everything that is desirable or possible, I was rather to Hegel. L ' Hegelianism interprets the long history of humanity as having a meaning: c ' is freedom of ' man progressing step by step. History is made of successive shocks is taken into account of challenges. The history of society progresses, and after, the man having reached its full freedom, we have the democratic state its ideal form. There are of course another conception of ' history. Progress made by freedom, competition, the race "ever", this may be experienced as a destructive hurricane. Thus represents a friend of my father, the man who shared with him the task of translate into German In Search of Lost Time by Marcel Proust. C ' is the German philosopher Walter Benjamin. He pulled a message pessimistic ' an array of Swiss painter Paul Klee's Angelus Novus where the figure of ' angel opens his arms as if to contain and repel a storm that ' he identified with progress. Benjamin who committed suicide in September 1940 to escape Nazism, the sense of history is the irresistible path of disaster in disaster. Indifference: the worst attitude True, the reasons may seem to be indignant TODAY ' Today less net or the world too complex. Who controls, who decides? It is not always easy to distinguish between all the currents that we govern. We no longer dealing with a small elite that we clearly understand the actions. C ' is a vast world,
we feel that it is interdependent. We live in an inter connectivity as yet none has ever existed. But in this world, Some things unbearable. To see this, we must look, search. I tell young people: Looking for a bit, you'll find. The worst attitude is indifference, saying "I n ' There can not, I'm doing. " By having this, you lose one of the components which is essential in humans. One of the essential components: the Faculty of outrage and commitment that is the consequence. We can already identify two major challenges: 1. L ' huge gap between the very poor and very rich and which continues to grow. This is an innovation of the twentieth century `and` XXI. The very poor in the world today earn just two dollars per day. We can not let that gap widen further. This statement alone should generate commitment. 2. Human rights and the rule of the planet. I had the chance after Liberalisation of being involved in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations, 10 December 1948 in Paris at the Palais de Chaillot. It's under Chief firm Henri Laugier, Assistant Secretary General of the UN, and Secretary of the Commission on Human Rights ' man j ' ai, with ' others, been induced to participate in the drafting of this declaration. I can not forget, in its development, the role of René Cassin, curator National Justice and Education, Government of Free France, in London in 1941, which was Nobel peace in 1968, nor that of Pierre Mendes France in the Economic and Social Council to whom the texts that we developed were subjected before being considered by the Third Committee of the ' General Assembly, responsible for matters Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee. She had fifty-four Member States at the time, UN, and I assured the secretariat. René Cassin is that we have the term "rights
universal "and not" international "as suggested by our friends Anglo-Saxon. For there is much at stake at the end of the War World: emancipate themselves from the threats posed to Totalitarianism humanity. For s ' by emancipate must ensure that the Member States United Nations undertakes to respect these universal rights. It is a way defeat the argument of full sovereignty that a State may assert while engaging in crimes against humanity on its soil. This was the If Hitler considered himself his own master and allowed to cause genocide. The Universal Declaration owes much to the revulsion Universal against Nazism, fascism, totalitarianism, and even, by our presence, the spirit of the Resistance. I felt the need to quickly, do not be fooled by the hypocrisy there was in the ' Membership proclaimed by the victors in these values that not all had intended to promote fair, but we were trying their impose 3 . I can not resist the urge to quote Article 15 of the Declaration Universal Human Rights, ' Rights: "Everyone has the right to nationality "and Article 22:" Everyone, as a member of the society has the right to social security and is entitled to the satisfaction of economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for dignity and the free development of his personality, thanks to the efforts National and international cooperation, taking into account the ' organization and resources of each country. And if this statement has a scope declarative, not legal, it has nevertheless played a role powerful since 1948, we saw colonized s ' in their grasp independence struggle, she has stocked in their minds for battle freedom. I note with pleasure that ' in recent decades have increased non-governmental organizations, movements social as ATTAC (Association for the Taxation of Transactions
financial), FIDH (International Federation of Human Rights) Amnesty ... who are acting and performing. It is obvious that to be effective TODAY ' Today, we must act in a network, take advantage of all means modern communication. For young people, I say look around you, you will find themes that justify your outrage - the treatment made to immigrants, undocumented migrants, Roma. You will find situations concrete that lead you to give play to strong citizen action. Seek and ye shall find! My indignation about Palestine Today, my biggest outrage for Palestine, the band Gaza, the West Bank. This conflict is the source of indignation. He must read the report of September 2009 Richard Goldstone Gaza, in which the South African judge, Jewish, Zionist who even said, accuses Israel of committing "acts amounting to war crimes and perhaps in some circumstances, crimes the cons ' humanity "during its operation" Cast Lead " which lasted three weeks. I myself returned to Gaza in 2009, where j ' I was able to enter with my wife through our diplomatic passports in order to ' study firsthand what the report said. The people who accompanied us n ' have not been allowed into the Gaza Strip. There and in the West Bank. We also visited the Palestinian refugee camps set up in 1948 by ' UN agency, UNRWA, where more than three million Palestinians from their land by Israel are waiting for a Return increasingly problematic. As for Gaza, c ' is a prison open for a million and half Palestinians. A prison where they s ' organize to survive. More than the physical destruction like the Red Crescent hospital in Cast Lead is the behavior of Gazans, their patriotism, their love of the sea and beaches, their constant concern for the welfare of their children,
countless, laughing, that haunt our memory. We were impressed by their clever way to deal with all shortages imposed on them. We saw them make the fault cement bricks to rebuild thousands of homes destroyed by tanks. We confirmed that there had been four miles hundred dead - women, children and old included in the camp Palestinian - during this operation " Cast Lead "by Israeli army against only fifty wounded Israelis. I sharing the findings of South African judge. That Jews could commit themselves to war crimes, it is unbearable. Alas, l ' History gives little ' Examples of people who learn from their own history. I know that Hamas won the recent parliamentary elections n ' has unable to avoid being sent rockets on Israeli towns in response to the situation of isolation and blockade in which Gazans are. I obviously think that terrorism is unacceptable, but we must recognize that when you are busy with military means infinitely superior to yours, the popular reaction can not be non-violent. Is it used to Hamas ' send rockets on Sderot ? The answer is no. It does not help its cause, but we can explain this gesture by ' exasperation of Gazans. In the concept of exasperation, he need to understand violence as a regrettable conclusion unacceptable situation for those affected. So we can that terrorism is a form of ' exasperation. And that frustration is a negative term. It should not be asper former, it be es-operate. The exasperation is a denial of hope. It is understandable, I would almost say it is natural, but so far it did ' is not acceptable. Because that ' it does not provide the results that may eventually produce hope.
Nonviolence, the path we must learn to follow. I am convinced that ' future belongs to non-violence, reconciliation of different cultures. This is the way that humanity must cross the next step. And, I agree with Sartre, we can not excuses for terrorists who throw bombs, they can understand. Sartre wrote in 1947: "I accept that violence in any form it manifests itself is a failure. But it is an inevitable failure because we are in a world of violence. And it is true that the use of violence is violence that is likely to perpetuate it is true c ' is ' the only way to stop 4 . "What j ' would add that non-violence is a safer way to stop it. We can not support terrorists as Sartre ' made on behalf of this principle Algeria during the war or during the attack on the Munich games in 1972, committed against Israeli athletes. This is not efficient and Sartre himself eventually wonder at the end of his life on the meaning of terrorism and to question its rationale. Say "violence is not effective, "c ' is far more important than whether we should condemn or not those who s ' to deliver. Terrorism is not effective. In the concept efficiency, we must hope nonviolent. If there is a hope violent is in the poetry of Guillaume Apollinaire: "What hope is violent "no politics. Sartre, in March 1980, three weeks his death, said: "We must try ' explain why the world Now, that is horrible, is a long time in the develop- historical development, that ' Hope has always been a strength Dominant revolutions and insurgencies, and how I feel yet the ' hope like my conception of the future 5 We must understand that violence turns his back on hope. He must be prefer the ' expectancy, the ' expectancy of non-violence. C ' is the path we must learn to follow. From either side of
oppressors of the oppressed, we must come to a negotiation to remove the ' oppression; c ' is thereby no longer have terrorist violence. Therefore we must not let accumulate too much hate. The message ' Mandela a, d ' a Martin Luther King finds its relevance in a world which has exceeded the comparison of ideologies and totalitarianism conqueror. This is a message of hope in modern societies' capacity to overcome conflicts by mutual understanding and patience vigilant. To so, it must be based on rights, violation of which, what that ' in is the ' author, should provoke our indignation. There is not compromise on these rights. For a peaceful uprising J ' have noted - and I'm not the only - government response Israel faces the fact that every Friday citizens Bil'id will, without throwing stones without using force, to the wall against which they protest. The Israeli authorities have called the march of "non-violent terrorism." Not bad ... It should be Israel to a terrorist nonviolence. It is especially be embarrassed by the efficiency of non-violence that is committed to ensuring it raises the support, understanding, support of all those who in the world are the enemies of oppression. Productivist thinking, driven by the West, led the world in a crisis that we must avoid a radical break with the headlong rush of "growing" in the financial field but also in science and technology. It is high time for the sake of ethics, justice, sustainable balance become prevalent. For the most serious risks we face. They can put an end to the human adventure on a planet that ' it can make it uninhabitable for ' man.
But it remains true that d ' Important progress has been made since 1948: decolonization, the end of apartheid, the destruction of the Soviet empire, the fall of the Berlin Wall. For cons, the first decade of XXI e century were a period of decline. This fall, I explained in part by the U.S. President George Bush, September 11, and disastrous consequences as ' have drawn the United States, as this military intervention in Iraq. We had this economic crisis, but we did not further initiated a new policy development. Similarly, the Copenhagen summit the cons No global warming ' no permit ' engage in genuine policy for protecting the planet. We are at a threshold between the horrors of the first decade and opportunities following decades. But hopefully, always hope. The previous decade, the 1990s, had been of great progress. The UN has been able to convene conferences like those of Rio on Environment in 1992, that of Beijing on Women in 1995 and in September 2000, at the ' initiative of Secretary General United Nations, Kofi Annan, the 191 member countries adopted the statement on the "Eight Millennium Development" by which they undertake to halve poverty in the world ' 2015. My great regret, c ' is that neither Obama nor l ' EU has so far been manifested with what should be their contribution to a constructive phase, s ' pressing the values fundamental. How to conclude the call to s ' indignant? Recalling further that, the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of the National Programme Resistance, we said March 8, 2004, we veterans Resistance movements and fighting forces of Free France (1940-1945), although that "Nazism was defeated, thanks to the sacrifice of our brothers and sisters of the Resistance and the UN against barbarism
Fascist. But this threat n ' has not totally disappeared and our anger the cons ' Injustice is still intact 6 . No, this threat has not disappeared completely. Also, call us always "a real insurrection against the peaceful means mass communication that do not offer a horizon for our Youth that mass consumption, the contempt for the weakest and culture, ' generalized amnesia and excessive competition of all against all. " To those who will make the twenty-first century, we say with our affection : "CREATE is to resist. RESIST IS TO CREATE. "
NOTES Created a clandestine May 27, 1943 in Paris by representatives of eight major resistance movements, the two major unions Pre-war: the CGT, CFTC (French Confederation of Workers Christians) and the six main political parties of the Third Re- public including the PC and the SFIO (Socialist), the National Council of Resistance (CNR) held its first meeting on 27 May under the chairmanship Jean Moulin, de Gaulle's delegate who wanted to establish this Council to make more effective the fight against the Nazis, strengthen its own legitimacy against allies. De Gaulle instructed the board to develop a government program in anticipation of the release of France. This program was the subject of several back and forth between the CNR and Government of Free France, both in London and Algiers before to be adopted March 15, 1944, in plenary session by the NRC. This program is solemnly handed to General de Gaulle by the CNR August 25, 1944 at the Hotel de Ville in Paris. Note that the Ordinance press was promulgated on 26 August. And one of the main Editors of the program was Roger Ginsburg, the son of a rabbi in Alsace , So under the pseudonym Pierre Villon, he was Secretary General of National Front for the independence of France, resistance movement created by the French Communist Party in 1941, and represents what movement within the CNR and its permanent office. 2 According to union estimates, we went from 75 to 80% of income as the amount of pensions to about 50%, this being an order of magnitude. Jean-Paul Domin, lecturer in Economics at the Uni- University of Reims Champagne-Ardennes, in 2010, writes for the Institute European Waged a note on "complementary health insurance shut up. " He reveals how access to additional quality now a privilege due to the position in employment, as most
brittle fault waive care insurance and complementary l ' importance of remaining unpaid, and that the problem is to have salary is more support for social rights - the central point of orders of 4 and 15 October 1945. They enacted the Social security and its management placed under the dual authority representatives of workers and the state. Since the reforms Juppe 1995 imposed by ordinance, then the law Douste Blazy (Doctor training), 2004, is the only state that handles Social Security. It eg the Head of State appoints by order of the Chief the National Insurance Fund (NHIF). They are no longer as the aftermath of the liberation of trade unionists who are head of primary funds, but the county government, through the prefects. Workers' representatives take no more than a role advisor. 3 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on 10 December 1948 in Paris by the UN General Assembly by 48 states out of 58 members. Eight abstained: South Africa, to because of apartheid that the statement of fact condemned; Saudi Arabia, even, because of gender equality; Union Soviet Union (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus), Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, saying in turn that Statement did not go far enough in taking into account the rights economic and social rights and the issue of minority rights, we Note however, that Russia in particular objected to the proposal Australia to create an International Court of Human Rights responsible for examining petitions addressed to the UN; must here noted that Article 8 of the Declaration introduced the principle of using individual against a state for violation of fundamental rights; this principle would find its application in Europe in 1998, with
creation of a European Court of Human Rights permanent guarantees the right to appeal to more than 800 million Europeans. 4 Sartre, J.-P., "State of the writer in 1947 o, in Situations II, Paris Gallimard, 1948. 5 Sartre, J.-P., "Now the hope ... (III) "in Le Nouvel Observateur, 24 March 1980. 6 The signatories of the Appeal of March 8, 2004 are: Lucie Aubrac Raymond Aubrac, Henri Bartoli, Daniel Cordier, Philippe Dechartre Guingouin Georges, Stéphane Hessel, Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont, Lise London, Georges Seguy, Germaine Tillion, Jean-Pierre Vernant, Maurice Voutey.
POSTSCRIPT Stéphane Hessel was born in Berlin in 1917 to ' a Jewish father writer translator, Franz Hessel, and a painter mother, music lover, Helen Grund, a writer herself. S parents ' set in Paris in 1924, with their two children, Ulrich, the eldest, and Stephane. Through the middle family, both attending the Parisian avant-garde, including Dada Marcel Duchamp and the American sculptor Alexander Calder. Stéphane entered the ' ENS Rue d'Ulm in 1939, but the War interrupted his studies. French citizen since 1937, it is mobilized and knows the phoney war, Marshal Petain sees the sell off French sovereignty. In May 1941, he joined the Free France of General de Gaulle in London. He works in the Office of cons-espionage, Intelligence and Action (BCRA). By night's end of March 1944, he was landed clandestinely in France under the codename "Greco" with mission to contact the various networks in Paris, of find new places ' radio show to go to London information collected for the Allied landings. July 10 1944, he was arrested by the Gestapo in Paris on denunciation: "We do not pursue someone ' one who spoke under torture, "he wrote in a memoir, Dancing with the century in 1997. After interrogation under torture - the ' test including the bathtub, it destabilizes her torturers in their speaking German, language native - he was sent to Buchenwald, Germany, August 8 1944, so only a few days of the liberation of Paris. On the eve of being hanged, he succeeds in extremis to exchange his identity against that of a French died of typhus in the camp. Under its new name, Michel Boitel, milling business, he was transferred to Camp Rottleberode near the ' plant undercarriage of German bombers, the Junkers 52, but fortunately - his eternal luck - it is paid the accounting department. He escaped. Recaptured, he was moved to Camp
Dora, where are made the V-1 and V-2 rockets with which the Nazis are still hoping to win the war. Assigned to the penal company, he escaped again and this time for good; Allied troops move closer to Dora. Finally, it goes back to Paris, his wife Vitka - the mother of his three children, two boys and a girl. This life returned, it had to incur, "wrote the former of Free France, in his memoirs. In 1946, after passing the entrance examination to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Stéphane Hessel became a diplomat.His first job was at the UN where, that year, Henri Laugier, Assistant Secretary General of the UN and secretary of the Commission on Human Rights, offered him to be his cabinet secretary. It is for this reason that Stéphane Hessel joined the commission to develop what will be the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is considered that its twelve members, six have played a more vital role: Eleanor Roosevelt, widow of President Roosevelt died in 1945, committed feminist, she chairs the Committee; Dr. Chang (China Chiang Kaïchek and not Mao):Vice-Chairman of the Committee, he stated that the Declaration should not only be a reflection of Western ideas, Charles Habib Malik (Lebanon), Rapporteur of the Commission, often described as the driving force, "with Eleanor Roosevelt, René Cassin (France), jurist and diplomat, president of the Consultative Commission on Human Rights with the Quai d'Orsay, we owe him the writing of several articles and have been able to cope with the fears of some states, including France to see their colonial sovereignty threatened by this statement - it was a challenging and interventionist conception of Human Rights, John Peters Humphrey (Canada), lawyer and diplomat, a close associate of Laugier, he wrote the first draft of a document 400 pages; finally Stéphane Hessel (France), a diplomat, chief of staff of the Laugier, the youngest. We see how the spirit of FrancePage 1919 blew open on this committee. The Declaration was adopted December 10, 1948 by the United Nations at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris. With the influx of new staff, many of whom covet a job that pays well, "isolating the marginal seeking ideal 'by own review of Hessel in his memoirs, he left the UN. It is assigned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to represent France at international institutions, the opportunity to recover temporarily, as such, New York and the United Nations. During the war in Algeria, he argues in favor of Algerian independence. In 1977, with the complicity of the Secretary General of the Elysee, Claude Brossolette, son of Pierre, formerly head of the BCRA, he was offered by President Valery Giscard d'Estaing, the post of ambassador to the UN,Geneva. He does not hide that, of all French statesmen, that he 's feeling is the closest Pierre Mendes France, known in London at the time of Free France and returned to the United Nations in 1946 in New York, where it represents France in the Economic and Social Council. He will have his consecration as a diplomat "this change in the government of France, he writes, is that the arrival of François Mitterrand at the Elysee," in 1981. "She was a diplomat rather narrowly specialized in multilateral cooperation, reached two years of his retirement, Ambassador of France. He joined the Socialist Party. "I wonder why? First response: the shock of the year 1995. I did not imagine the French rather imprudent to bring Jacques Chirac to the presidency. "With now a diplomatic passport, he went with his new wife in 2008 and 2009 in the Gaza Strip and returning shows on the painful lives of Gazans. "I'm always on the side of the dissidents, said he at the same time. "It is well that one who speaks here in 93 years.