Well over 18 common diseases involving perhaps 149,000 deaths a year could be conservatively linked to the results of industrial air pollution in the UK, at a cost of some £19 billion annually, representing 40% of the total NHS budget, plus social security and social costs. A recent French hospital survey also found 40% attendances linked to industrial pollution. In
Section EA95 7 (1) c iii of the Environment Act 1995 instructs ministers to help the Environment Agency carry out its function in poor areas, which an EA chief explained meant siting the lethal processes in disadvantaged areas to create in effect "killing fields", with the DOH then alleging "deprivation" and "life-style" for the resultant illnesses and premature deaths, contrary to published research in USA and UK. The DETR in IPPC2000 diluted the standards for industrial emissions to air, while the DOH refuses to undertake epidemiology by postcode to identify source(s) and culprits. Government "spin doctors" refuse to publish anything not in line with government policy whether in the media or scientific journals, and also mislead the public and doctors with unsubstantiated allegations concerning house dust mites, imported PM 10s &/or S02, promoting theories including inadequate dirt exposure when young (while injecting multiple vaccines at very early ages), etc. Victims of chemical/radiological poisoning are referred to the psychiatrist because the National Poisons Unit has stated "pollution does not exist". Concurrent evidence of raised incidence of cancers (and other conditions including birth defects) in polluted zones has been removed by deleting and with-holding names from the cancer register, and by fraudulently calling half the affected wards "exposed" while the others are labelled "control" to allege "no difference", and by altering dates and zones to dilute key data. Essential data such as terminations done for defects, is ornitted in published reports rendering conclusions invalid or plain fraudulent. Vital anonymised health statistics are also deliberately hidden from the public by health authorities, in defiance of article 8 of the Human Rights Act and
There is a total paucity of anybody properly trained in toxicology in councils, EA, Health Authority Public Health Departments, consultants and GPs. Yet public health doctors have requested unqualified developers or environment agency officers &/or local authorities to assist them to write reports using fake figures based on fraud and abysmal ignorance, including government "spin doctor" reports in determining crucial proposals and situations. One doctor in 1997 told the environment agency to reopen a hazardous waste site knowing it would mean killing over 200 per year. The USA War Department published on 30 October 1943 details concerning the lethal actions of inhaled PMls, yet the UK DOH, DEFRA and many consultants are still determined to ignore them, compared with the USEPA, which has established generous limits in 1997 for PM2.5s of 15ug/M3, while WHO stated in October 1994 that there was no safe lower limit. The USA Supreme Court stated in 2001 that public health must come first in all government decisions, which must be compared with the
PM2.5 are man-made particles smaller than 2.5 microns, which have increased enormously due to the switch from coal to waste oil mixes (SLF) as fuel in the UK in incinerators, factories, cement works and even JCBs and other equipment, especially since 1992. A switch to residual oils increases the weight of nickel emissions by some 55 times, but the particle numbers increase by some 55000 times. Cement works burning a mix of SLF, coal and petcoke, even with scrubbers, would emit some 34880 times the carcinogenic heavy metal particles at say PM0.5 size compared with coal at PM5. Only those smaller than PM3 enter the lungs. Scrubbers only remove effectively particulates larger than PM3, so are only useful in reducing acidic S02 emissions, which Omits secondary particle formation in the air after exit. Emission data published by Powergen revealed an increase in respirable particle numbers from burning "Orimulsion" compared with coal at another power station with similar abatement, calculated at 197000 times higher. These emitted particles, smaller than PM2, usually comprise acidic pH2 carbon, with adsorbed heavy metals and VOCs, which all enter the lungs, with vanadium affecting bronchioles, and nickel the alveoli, and initiate a 7 day inflammation (maximum on day 4), which results in increased infant mortality, asthma in 2 to 12 year olds with their small bronchi and relatively higher air intake; depression, lassitude and cardiovascular problems in those aged from 13 to 45, and respiratory and cardiovascular problems in the over 46s. Allergens are dealt with by mast cells in the lung. In contrast, inhaled PM2.5 particles are dealt with by macrophages with pulmonary & systemic knock on effects. In some cases inflammatory particulate/allergen reaction is initiated in the nasal lining. In the
Soluble heavy metals migrate through the blood stream, with resultant DNA mutations producing cancer risk in the patient or unborn chill (f patient is pregnant). The particles with adsorbed contaminants, are mopped up by macrophages and transferred to the lung lymph nodes during the following 6 weeks. An inflammatory response is inflated by the macrophages, including release of cytoldnes and increased blood coaguability within 2 hours, followed by leukocytes and T-cell lymphocytes within 6 hours. If the inhaled load of particles is too great for macrophages to cope with, or if the inhaled particles are insoluble such as insoluble uranium oxides or beryllium, or wrong shape such as asbestos or quartz, the lung inflammation produces fibrosis. Recent published data from Californian children confirmed a significant permanent reduction in peak flow from this fibrosis even at age 10 years, entirely resulting from inhalation of exterior PM2.5 particulates from transport and industry, not household items, as often alleged. A county athlete in Pembrokeshire had her peak flow reduced from around 525 to 330 by PM2.5 emissions from oil refineries and power station (burning residual fuel oil without abatement). When plumes grounded at her school or home, peak flow fell further, necessitating oxygen and intensive therapy. She was proven via extensive testing to have no known allergies.
Exposure to PM2.5s leads to a reduction in lifespan of some 1.5 years for every 10ug/M3, which explains the 5 to over 12 year average differential in longevity between upper social classes in places like Arundel, compared with polluted lower class areas, which have become killing fields. However in unpolluted places in southern
Attic dust analysis may be undertaken to confirm human exposure to unusual pollutants, noting that most exterior PM2.5s enter houses and adhere to surfaces. Hair analysis can reveal heavy
The UK is still ignoring published research, preferring manipulated PM10 printouts massaged downwards by using recalibrated equipment and computer adjustments (instead of accurate factoryset PM2.5 beta-monitors). This scam was admitted by a DETR official in mid 1998.
Emissions ground as a plume affecting rural and urban areas of most of the
Deficiency of excess antioxidant vitamins C and E leaves oxidising pollutant free radicals (including those arising from paracetamol breakdown) able to cause cell damage, especially if the cell wall quality has been deteriorated by dietary transfatty hydrogenated fats instead of omega-3 oils. Incidence of Alzheimer's Disease has been discovered substantially lower in those ingesting extra vitamins C&E. These paracetamol breakdown radicals also increase the burden from PM2.5 inhalation in asthmatics who take paracetamol for other conditions. Depression and stress both put strain on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, opening up the blood-brain barrier and affecting calcium homeostasis, hence brain cell health. Brain cells can also be compromised by OP pesticide attachment, or various viruses. As well as OP pesticides inhibiting acetylcholinesterass, certain isomers also inhibit neuropathy target esterase causing OPIDN. Brain cells may die as in some Gulf War victims or may produce arnyloid deposition typical of Alzheimers dementia. Deficiency of selenium depletes six vital enzymes required in the body's immune and toxicology systems, resulting in cancer becoming more likely, from inhaled or ingested carcinogens. Selenium supplementation in one trial reduced incidence of the main 4 cancers by some 56%. Folic acid and vitamins B6 & B12 deficiency result in excess homocysteine, linked to premature vascular disease. A less varied and poorer quality non-organic diet of deprived victims explains why they are more seriously affected when exposed to relevant pollution. German research has been indicating that those on an organic diet have 20% lower NHS costs due to higher essential mineral content, plus freedom from pesticides and contaminants. The
To clarify the results of the industrial air pollution on disease patterns, I now list some of the effects.
ASTHMA. About 0.3% of children a generation ago suffered from allergic reactions acting via mast cells to moulds, pollen starches, and other inspired allergens, and certain foods or short peptide chains absorbed from a leaking bowel wall. This allergic proportion has risen in the
Pollens & sea salt are larger than PM 4 as are the average particulates from coal burning. Coal burning plants require scrubbers (FGD) plus
HEART ATTACKS AND STROKES. The lung inflammation from inhaling particulates or irritants results in enhanced clotting, increasing the likelihood of heart attacks and strokes. Any increase in PM2.5 particles halves the time needed for an ischaernic heart attack. Boston volunteers exposed to 3-hour increase of only 14.3ug/m3 of PM2.5s, proved vagal tone decreased resulting in reduced heart rate variability, which is a predictor of increased risk of cardiovascular mortality or morbidity (p=0.006). These levels are below the monthly averages of 19 ug/m3 at 8.5km downwind of Texaco's Pembrokeshire refinery. Ozone excess induced lung inflammation also decreased vagal tone (p=0.03). Nickel in PM2.5 particulates in the lung enters the bloodstream and excites the heart's electrical system leading to tachycardia, while lead and iron particulates harm heart muscle (e.g. from London's Northern Line old trains, and emissions from burning SLF). A recent
Detailed analysis in Boston of patients suffering myocardial infarcts revealed an increase in odds ratio of 1.48 after 2 hours of an increase of just 25ug/m3 of PM2.5 particulates, with a second peak from further inflammatory responses amounting to odds ratio of 1.69 at 24 hours exposure to a rise of only 20ug/m3 PM2.5s. Excess UK deaths annually would exceed 480 in Rhondda, 500 at Merthyr and 8000 in Central Scotland compared with Western Europe, mostly from heart attacks, because of presumed PM2.5 pollution as described earlier. Standardised mortality rates around the Nantygwyddon waste site rose from near
CANCERS Coking works were responsible for increased incidence of lung cancer in the oven workers, plus leukaemia, breast and other cancers in the surrounding population from heavy metals, phenols, benzine and PCBs dumped as waste. A detailed survey in NSW Australia of a steelworks, coking works and adjacent waste site, illustrated how the plume of carcinogens settled, with some fourfold incidence of leukaemias and ninefold increase in general cancers at 1 mile tailing off to background rates at 11 miles.
An incinerator at Killamarsh near
DEPRESSION. Raised levels of ultrafine particulates under PM 2.5 were proven in a German study to increase incidence of depression. Some PAHs, some metals and some other organic compounds also initiate depression. A high incidence is hence found in the high-asthma plume-grounding zone in Pembrokeshire and other areas afflicted with high pollutant levels of the type described, such as
HYPOTHYROIDISM Certain organic emissions bind the building blocks in the body, which produce thyroid hormone. Penta bromo diphenyl ether used as flame retardant in upholstery etc., like PCBs interferes with thyroxin metabolism. Breast milk levels of BDEs in
ENDOMETRIOSIS 12.5% of
DIABETES Dioxin intake by inhalation and/or ingestion has been revealed in published journals to be associated with an increased incidence of diabetes. Recent Israeli research by Rudich has shown chronic exposure of fat or skeletal muscle cells to even low levels of reactive oxidant radicals produces insulin resistance, namely type-2 diabetes, and glucose absorption is decreased. In
POLYMYALGIA RHEUMATICA AND SOME REACTIVE ARTHRITIS An increase has been noted in the plume grounding area of 2 oil refineries in Pembrokeshire, possibty due to an autoimmune response to haptens formed from fluoride emissions. Exposure to radioactivity causes deterioration in cartilage.
BIRTH DEFECTS, PERINATAL DEATHS, and INFANT MORTALITY. The Dolk report concerning selected European hazardous waste sites revealed a rise in birth defects within 3 miles (5km). A more recent report compared births under 2km with those affected between 3-5km (with some outside) to fraudulently minimise any differential. Within 5km of Trecatti waste site following conversion to hazardous waste tipping, the birth defects, perinatal deaths and infant mortality all doubled. Similarly within 5 km of Nantygwyddon following conversion to hazardous the birth defects soared and infant mortality doubled. At
CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULPHIDE emanate from cars and from many industrial chimneys. Both, and also mercaptens, block the P450 cytochrome in the liver so the recipient can no longer break down toxins inhaled or ingested. The damage may last for 2.5 years. Tests are available in
GRANULOMATOUS CONDITIONS such as probable berylliosis and sarcoidosis were discovered around Nantygwyddon (
AUTISM, ME, CFS, VIRUSES. Autism has been linked to exposure to mercury by pregnant mothers, arising from emissions from crematoria and cement works/incinerators burning SLF hazardous waste as fuel, affecting the foetus, exacerbated especially in lower weight babies by mercury preservative in many vaccines. The USEPA “safe" intake of mercury is 0.1 ug/kg body weight. Vaccines have contained 12.5 to 25ug of mercury leading to potential loading with 50-62.5ug in one clinic of multiple vaccines. The US CDC found 10% of reproductive-age US women with blood-levels of mercury that could represent a threat of neurological damage to the foetus. Mercury sensitises the brain, which can be affected by multiple live virus vaccines especially the measles of MMR if the immune system is deficient having been compromised by cadmium or mercury exposure or dietary selenium deficiency. In 2
Genes in Gulf War veterans have been found with fragmented, reshuffled genes of chromosome 22Q11.2, which is required in antibody production. This gene damage can result from viruses or other cell stress from chemicals (like low doses of arsenic activating viruses), as found in ME & CFS. Mycoplasma has been found to cause punctate lesions in the left frontal lobe of the brain. Mycoplasma feeds on sterols in cells including red blood cells. The red blood cells then swell leading to poor circulation resulting in aches, pain and weakness. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome victims have revealed various biological markers including higher atypical lymphocytes, circulating immune complexes, raised IgG, novel low molecular weight 2-5A-binding protein, sleep changes, low folate, reduced bowel bifidobacteria and e-cold, neuroendocrine dysfunction (with low cortisol, low CRH and low ACTH,) & involvement of a chemical, or virus such as Epstein-Barr, Lyme Disease, Q-Fever, Parvovirus or HHV-6 (herpes) found in the most affected patients.
If an immunised baby has damaged or sensitised systems or inadequate T-lymphocytes, it is hardly surprising that problems may occur. It has been a feature of the UK MENINGITIS outbreaks, that all appear to have occurred in polluted areas, where strained immune systems could explain susceptibility. A few children have succumbed to one strain of meningitis following immunisation against another in polluted areas, again probably due to overload of the immune system with T-lymphocytes diverted to dealing with the lung PM2.5 particulates from the pollution, with insufficient left over. Low pollution in
Doctors must be aware of the described cocktail effects of interacting pollutants and challenges in patents of variable status. An analysis of practice and hospital databases providing anonymised postcoded data would be of great benefit. The author may, on request, provide appropriate information or advice.